Figure 5 Effect of propofol docosahexaenoic acid (propofol DHA) and propofol eicosapentaenoic acid (propofol EPA) conjugates on cell migration. MDA MB 231 cells (104) were incubated for 4 hours with 25 M DHA (D), 25 M EPA (E), 25 M propofol (P), 25 M each of D+P, 25 M each of E+P, and 25 M propofol DHA (D P) or 25 M propofol EPA (E P) using transwell plates. The control cells (C) were treated with equal amounts of ethanol. Cells that migrated through the filter were counted under a microscope as described in the text. Results are means SEM for four experiments. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Dunnett's multiple comparison test to control the Type I experimental wise error. Significant differences from the control (P < 0.05) are indicated with an asterisk..
Anticancer properties of propofol docosahexaenoate and propofol eicosapentaenoate on breast cancer cells
Breast Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 7; 7(5):R645-R654
IntroductionEpidemiological evidence strongly links fish oil, which is rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with low in.....
IntroductionEpidemiological evidence strongly links fish oil, which is rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with low incidences of several types of cancer. The inhibitory effects of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cancer development and progression are supported by studies with cultured cells and animal models. Propofol (2,6 diisopropylphenol) is the most extensively used general anesthetic sedative agent employed today and is nontoxic to humans at high levels (50 g/ml). Clinically relevant concentrations of propofol (3 to 8 g/ml; 20 to 50 M) have also been reported to have anticancer activities. The present study describes the synthesis, purification, characterization and evaluation of two novel anticancer conjugates, propofol docosahexaenoate (propofol DHA) and propofol eicosapentaenoate (propofol EPA).MethodsThe conjugates linking an omega 3 fatty acid, either DHA or EPA, with propofol were synthesized and tested for their effects on migration, adhesion and apoptosis on MDA MB 231 breast cancer cells.ResultsAt low concentrations (25 M), DHA, EPA or propofol alone or in combination had minimal effect on cell adhesion to vitronectin, cell migration against serum and the induction of apoptosis (only 5 to 15% of the cells became apoptotic). In contrast, the propofol DHA or propofol EPA conjugates significantly inhibited cell adhesion (15 to 30%) and migration (about 50%) and induced apoptosis (about 40%) in breast cancer cells.ConclusionThese results suggest that the novel propofol DHA and propofol EPA conjugates reported here may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer.
Copyright 2005 Siddiqui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.